Final Year Project Details – Environmental Engineering (RK07)

No. Title Synopsis Subdiscipline
1 Assessment of intermittently loaded woodchip and sand filters to treat diesel wastewater Disposal of oil residues have always been a major issue faced by the oil industries. Clean-up technologies using chemicals are expensive, therefore the use of media filters is an effective alternative method of treatment and potentially allows the final effluent to be reused. Knowledge gaps exist concerning the optimal design and operation of filters for the treatment of diesel contaminated wastewater. Therefore, in order to minimize the knowledge gaps four laboratory-scale filters with depths of either 0.5m or 0.1m, were intermittently loaded with diesel contaminated wastewater over periods of up to 60 days to evaluate the impacts of depth (0.5m versus 0.1m), organic loading rates (OLRs) (50 versus 155 gCODm2/d) and media type (woodchip versus sand) on organic, nutrient and suspended solids (SS) removals. This study will contribute to an improved understanding of the factors which should be considered in the design, construction and management of passive woodchip or sand filters to treat on site spillage of oil. One such factors are resolved, pilot scale filter may be effectively operated on site. Occupational safety, health and environmental management
2 Association between Student Academic Achievement and Students’ Satisfaction Towards University Infrastructure, Administration, Teaching and Learning. A case study in School of Environmental Engineering UniMAP Two years of survey data from Students Satisfaction Survey (PUSPEK, UniMAP) will be analysed. SPSS will be used to facilitate the arrangement, sorting and classifications of data. A few hypothesis based on previous literature will be created. The test that will be used; i) Normality – P-P and Q-Q plot; ii) Pearson Correlation – to find the correlation between the categories and; iii) ANOVA test – to confirm the significance of the research question/ hypothesis that have been constructed before carry out the analysis. Applied Sciences
3 Batch and Continuous Microwave-assisted regeneration of sea mango activated carbon Microwave heating was used in the regeneration of methylene orange-loaded activated carbons produced from sea mango. The dye-loaded carbons were treated in a modified conventional microwave oven operated at 2450 MHz and irradiation time of 2, 3 and 5 min. The virgin properties of the origin and regenerated activated carbons were characterized by pore structural analysis and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement and determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene orange (MO). Microwave irradiation preserved the pore structure, original active sites and adsorption capacity of the regenerated activated carbons. water and wastewater
4 Biological removal of phenol using hybrid growth sequencing batch reactor (SBR). This studyinvestigates the efficiency of biodegradation process in sequencing batch reactor. The sequencing batch reactor or also known as SBR is an effective wastewater treatment method that has been applied widely. SBR system has become an alternative method for industrial wastewater treatment with high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), phenolic compound and others organic pollutant. Water and wastewater
5 Biological treatment of textile effluent using bacteria application. Application of bacteria which is isolated from the textile wastewater is studied in order to reduce color and COD of the effluent. Three parameters will be studied which are pH of the solution, temperature of the solution and rotation (shaking/static). The microbiological study is also carried out to determine the morphology of the bacteria (e.g. gram staining, shape, color). Water and wastewater
6 Cactus Opuntia as coagulant in treating surface water and landfill leachate via coagulation process Coagulation-flocculation is an important process in the treatment of both surface water and industrial wastewater. Its application includes the usage of chemical based (inorganic) coagulants like alum and ferric salts. Nonetheless, many disadvantages are associated with the usage of these coagulants such as relatively high procurement costs as well as detrimental effects on human health and environment. It is, therefore, the use of natural organic coagulant from plant based which is cactus opuntia may be an interesting alternative coagulant in treating surface water and landfill leachate. This research aims to search for an alternative natural polymer which could be used as coagulant in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solid (SS), turbidity and colour from both samples. Water and wastewater
7 Catalytic slow pyrolysis of oil palm fronds over KOH/C, zeolite and dolomite and the catalysts effect on deoxygenation pathways Catalytic slow pyrolysis of oil palm fronds will be performed using fixed-bed reactor at 500oC and 600oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min. We will investigate the catalysts effect on cracking-deoxygenation via decarboxylation and decarbonylation. KOH/C will be investigated as a catalyst which aimed to enhance oxygen removal in the form of CO2 and CO. Zeolite provides a baseline study as a cracking catalyst, while dolomite provides a baseline study as a catalyst which favours the gas generation. Renewable energy
8 Catalytic slow pyrolysis of oil palm fronds over Na2CO3/C, zeolite and dolomite and the catalysts effect on deoxygenation pathways Catalytic slow pyrolysis of oil palm fronds will be performed using fixed-bed reactor at 500oC and 600oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min. We will investigate the catalysts effect on cracking-deoxygenation via decarboxylation and decarbonylation. Na2CO3/C will be investigated as a catalyst which aimed to enhance oxygen removal in the form of CO2 and CO. Zeolite provides a baseline study as a cracking catalyst, while dolomite provides a baseline study as a catalyst which favours the gas generation. Renewable energy
9 Characteristic of potential biomass for biocomposite Characteristics of a few potential biomass for bio composite were examined. The potential filler fractions are carefully analysed through different techniques using HPLC, TGA (thermal degradation) and DSC (transition temperatures, crystallinity), ftir and followed by tensile properties and also SEM. Material
10 Characterization and evaluation of heavy metal contaminated paddy soil treated with activated zeolite clinoptilolite Contaminated paddy soil with high concentration of heavy metals will be treated with chemically modified of zeolite clinoptilolite and low-cost HTOC organic amendment. Elemental compositions of activated zeolite clinoptilolite, zeolite-treated soil samples and HTOC will then be examined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Surface area analysis using BET will provides precise specific surface area evaluation of zeolite and HTOC. Basic physical-chemical parameters such as pH, soil moisture, organic matter and particle size of treated soil samples, zeolite and HTOC will also be determined as well. Nutrients content in soil before and after treatment will be analysed through CHONS (if available), while available contents of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in soil and paddy parts will be determined by HACH spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in substrate soils will be digested through total content digestion method using 15 mL HNO3, + 5 mL perchloric acid and analysed by AAS after dilution. The evaluation index of heavy metals concentration in soil will be finally assessed by analysing geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), contamination degree (Cdeg) and pollution load index (PLI). Simple correlation coefficient and one-way ANOVA will be run after lab analysis to determine the heavy metals concentrations in soil with different treatments. Soil remediation
11 Characterization and Properties of PP/NBRr/ Kenaf Core composites PP – Polypropylene NBRr – RecycleAcrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber The recycling effort of waste NBR is primarily aimed. The PP/NBRr/Kenaf Core composite will be fabricated using a thermal mixing technique. The Mechanical, Thermal &Morphological studies will be evaluated. The overall output of this research work is to expose environmental student on recycling engineering options and to promote innovative ideas and inventions. Recycling
12 Characterization and Properties of PP/NBRr/ Kenaf Fibre composites PP – Polypropylene NBRr – RecycleAcrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber The recycling effort of waste NBR is primarily aimed. The PP/NBRr/Kenaf Fibre composite will be fabricated using a thermal mixing technique. The Mechanical, Thermal &Morphological studies will be evaluated. The overall output of this research work is to expose environmental student on recycling engineering options and to promote innovative ideas and inventions. Recycling
13 Characterization and Properties of PP/NBRr/ T-Sago composites PP – Polypropylene NBRr – RecycleAcrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber The recycling effort of waste NBR is primarily aimed. The PP/NBRr/T-Sago composite will be fabricated using a thermal mixing technique. The Mechanical, Thermal &Morphological studies will be evaluated. The overall output of this research work is to expose environmental student on recycling engineering options and to promote innovative ideas and inventions. Recycling
14 Characterization of blooming algae in North Malaysia Algal blooms formed due to excessive eutrophication can change the entire physico-chemical parameters of shrimp ponds. Eutrophication is defined as the enrichment of water by plant growth nutrients, usually phosphorus and nitrogen compounds, causing accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life (Connell and Miller 1984; Harper 1992; Horne and Goldman 1994; Rast and Thornton 1996; Tett et al. 2008). The combination of a complex set of factors related to eutrophication and climate change has resulted in the rise in the frequency and geographic spread of phytoplankton blooms (Kouzminov et al. 2007; Adolf et al. 2009). Poor water quality can lead to algal blooms in shrimp ponds, which in turn lead to further deterioration of water quality in water body. Cyanobacterial blooms are in common, and associated cyanotoxins are noted from many inland water bodies. Blooms may affect irrigation system of paddy fields in different ways, such as depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO), with presence of pathogens associated with algae and toxins produced by algae, by inhibiting larval moulting by filamentous forms, etc. Frequent blooms have been observed in one of the concentrated algal bloom in Kubang Gajah, and this has been investigated through the present study. Major objectives of the study were to find out the blooming algae and bloom-associated changes. Another objective of the study was isolation and characterization of bacterial flora from the pond to check for the presence of pathogens if any. Water and wastewater
15 Coastal Water Quality Issues Due to Development along Kuala Perlis Coastal Area Coastal zone represents highly productive ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs, sea grasses and marine ecosystem. As a result from development and globalization, these ecosystems are under pressure on account of increased anthropogenic activity on the coast. Rapid development along side coastal areas also caused changes in landuse types which also affected the quality of marine water. This is due to the discharge form industry, agriculture or sewerage such as suspended sediments, pathogens, nutrients, heavy metals and oil. Many of these anthropogenic influences are part of a larger process of catchment landuse change that can affect the quality of marine water. It is crucial to preserve these ecosystems to ensure sustainable development. In order to manage the coastal zone, it requires information on habitats, land use, coastal process, water quality and characteristic of the areas Coastal zone management
16 Comparative study of plant-based coagulant in reducing COD and turbidity of industrial effluent. Two types of plant-based coagulant (banana peel and hibiscus leaf) are used in this study in order to treat industrial effluent. The parameters of the study are pH of the solution, coagulant dosage and settling time. At the end of the experiment, the sample will be test for COD, pH and turbidity Water and wastewater
17 Continuous Removal of 4-Nitrophenol using Sea Mango Activated Carbon Sea mango (Cerberaodollam), a non-edible fruit which is abundantly available in Malaysia was transformed into a potential low-cost activated carbon for the continuous removal of 4-nitrophenol from agricultural wastewater. The activated carbon was subjected to carbonization process at 200° C with nitrogen (N2), followed by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and physical activation using microwaves at 500° C for 2 h. water and wastewater
18 Continuous Removal of Dye from Textile Wastewater using Sea Mango Activated Carbon Sea mango (Cerbera odollam), a non-edible fruit which is abundantly available in Malaysia was transformed into a potential low-cost activated carbon for the continuous removal of dye from textile wastewater. The activated carbon was subjected to carbonization process at 200° C with nitrogen (N2), followed by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and physical activation using microwaves at 500° C for 2 h. water and wastewater
19 Decolourization of Azo Dye by Tamarind Seed Natural coagulation is an interesting alternative in water and wastewater treatment to reduce specific contaminant in the water. In this study, Tamarind seed will be used as a natural. Active component will be extracted from tamarind seed by using three different type of extraction solution namely distilled water, KCl 1.0M and NaCl 1.0M. Water and wastewater
20 Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds (XOC) in Aqueous Solution by O3/S2O82- Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of AOPs on Xenobiotic Organic Compounds (XOC) degradation. At the beginning of the study, a preliminary experiment will be conducted by varying concentrations of XOCwhile studying the effect of an initial concentration of XOCon the performance AOPs. In order to determine the effect of pH and temperature on XOCdegradation, the temperature and pH will be varied during the AOPs experiment. By using the experimental results, a kinetic model of XOCdegradation by AOPs will be determined and assessed. Finally, the characteristic of intermediate by-products will be identified by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra fragmentation. Water and wastewater
21 Development of teaching tool for teaching and learning of the topic “photosynthesis” by using the concept of a dye sensitized solar cell. This research focus on the development of a teaching aid that will help school teachers simplify the teaching and learning of the photosynthesis process. The study uses the basic fundamental of a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), also known as the Grätzel cell, to mimic the process of photosynthesis. At the end of the study, a teaching tools is expected to be developed complete with an instruction module for teachers and/or instructors. A survey study will be conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the developed tool. Education
22 Effect of Acetic anhydride on PP/NBRr/BSP composites PP/NBRr/BSP composites were prepared at different loadings. The effects of banana skin powder filler loading and acetic anhydride treatment on properties of PP/NBRr/BSP composites were investigated for mechanical properties, water absorption, swelling behavior, FTIR and SEM,. Material
23 Effectiveness study of organic waste management practices in Perlis The project aims to expand the use of recycled food waste generated in food premises and provide exposure and training provision compost using food waste generated and to assess the level of awareness of the food waste generated on their premises Solid and hazardous waste management
24 Ergonomic Risk Assessment among bus driver in Perlis. Driver is one of the occupational groups who are exposed to the ergonomic risk factor every day. Nature of this occupation including awkward posture, prolonged seating, repetitive use of muscles and etc. will contribute to developing of Work Musculoskeletal Disease (WMSDs) among them. This project will identify the ergonomic risk factor(s) that are exposed to this group. The exposure and risk contributing to WMSDs will be assessed using Quick Exposure Check (QEC), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Occupational safety, health and environmental management
25 Evaluation of heavy metal accumulations in harvested Oryzasativa L. (cv. YTM Sarawak Merah) planted in contaminated paddy soil treated with activated zeolite clinoptilolite. Paddy plants of local cultivar YTM Sarawak Merah harvested from contaminated soil with high concentrations of heavy metals will be characterized by total content digestion method using 15 mL HNO3 + 5 mL perchloric acid, and analysed by AAS after dilution, together with the concentrations of heavy metals in substrate soils. Elemental compositions of paddy parts including root, shoot, leaf and grain will be examined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Nutrients content in paddy parts will be analysed through CHONS (if available), while available contents of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in soil and paddy parts will be determined by HACH spectrophotometer. Basic physical-chemical parameters such as pH, soil moisture, organic matter and particle size of treated soil samples, zeolite and HTOC will also be determined as well. The evaluation index of heavy metals accumulations in plant will be finally assessed by analysing three main indicators, including biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF). Simple correlation coefficient will be run after lab analysis for the determination of relationships between heavy metal contents and biomasses of plant tissue parts. Soil remediation
26 Feasibility study on banana stem juice as a coagulant in treating landfill leachate via coagulation process Coagulation-flocculation is one of the treatment options used in treating landfill leachate. However, the coagulation-flocculation process normally involves the use of chemical based (inorganic) coagulants like alum and ferric salts. Nonetheless, many disadvantages are associated with the usage of these coagulants such as relatively high procurement costs as well as detrimental effects on human health and environment. It is, therefore, the use of natural organic coagulant from plant based which is cost effective may be an interesting alternative. This research aims to search for an alternative natural polymer which could be used as coagulant in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solid (SS), turbidity and colour from landfill leachate. Water and wastewater
27 Heat exchange rate of different pipe materials used in prefabricated ground heat exchanger slab Pipe materials play an important role in the thermal performance of ground heat exchanger in ground source heat pump systems. It is desirable that materials with the right balance between good thermal conductivity and high durability are used for the earth connection. In this work, laboratory-scale of prefabricated ground heat exchanger slab models would be constructed. Several pipe materials would be used as the ground heat exchanger in the slab models and compared for their thermal performance. The analysis criteria include temperature difference between inlet and outlet pipes which is used to determine the heat exchange rate. Heat distribution along the ground domain would also be investigated. Thermal saturation effect in the ground domain would also be examined in the comparison. Renewable energy
28 Impak psikososial, ekonomi dan risiko kesihatan terhadap penduduk setempat akibat pencemaran udara industri Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Perlis has approximately 20 km of coastal area which stretch from Kuala Perlis to Kuala Sanglang. Some part of the coastal zone is very populated and also few SMEs where located in the area. Due to human activities, the quality of the sea water is believed to be deteriorate and might affect the human as well as the aquatic live. Hence this work is to study the quality of the sea water in Perlis coastal zone and its effect on human and aquatic live. Water and wastewater
29 Influence of Metal Additives on Catalytic Removal of NOx by Carbonaceous Material The project focuses on the influence of metal additives impregnated on catalytic removal of NO from gas streams using oil palm fibre. Metal additives to be tested include iron, copper and nickel based metal oxides. The experimental variables will include the type of catalysts used for activation and loading of the chemicals, and their effects on NO removal. Differential rate of NO removal will be measured using gas analyzer. Water and wastewater
30 Influence of wastewater matrix in degradation of p-cresol in AOPs The main objective of this study is to access the influence of wastewater matrix in degradation of p-cresol in AOPs. At the first stage of study, the p-Cresol degradation in AOPs is study using the optimum condition stated in literatures. The second stage involved wastewater matrix in the treatment where a known COD value of wastewater sample is mixed with the p-Cresol sample before treatment. The performance of degradation is evaluated based on the concentration and COD reduction of the p-Cresol; whilst the characteristic of intermediate products of p-Cresol degradation will be identified by UV-Vis and FTIR spectra fragmentation. Water and wastewater
31 Isolation and characterization of bacteria from Anabas Testudeus This study was carried to isolate and identify the bacteria species that are associated with fish resistance to Metaldehyde using standard bacteriological techniques. The results of the bacteriological quality of the Anabas testudeus showed variation in the total bacterial and coliform counts to different anatomical parts (skins, gills and intestine). The highest total bacterial counts was recorded from gills (83 x 105cfu/ml) and lowest in skin (53 x 105cfu/ml) from cat fish. The total coliform counts of the cat fish ranges from 16 x 103cfu/ml, 36 x 103cfu/ml and 43 x 103cfu/ml in skin, intestine and gills respectively. A total of 288 colonies belonging to eleven genera where identified after comparing the morphological characteristics, gram staining reaction, biochemical tests and sugar utilization with those of known taxa. The identified genera were Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Enterococcus sp., Campylobacter sp., and Proteus sp. The prevalence of these genera shows that Pseudomonas sp( 96.95% ) was the most prevalent on all the anatomical parts followed by E. coli (14.64%) Enterococcus sp (9.74%), Klebsiella sp., (6.90%), Enterobactersp (6.72%). The presence of these bacteria genera showed the dynamic biodiversity of bacterial consortia which contribute to the robustness and resistance of Anabas testudeus to Mataldehyde exposure. Water and wastewater
32 Isolation and Characterization of Metaldehyde-tolerant bacteria from activated sludge floc General agricultural use of pesticides carries with it potential hazards to man and directly by exposure to toxic residues in food and indirectly to the environment. In an effort at developing active microbial strains that could be of relevant in bioremediation of pesticides contaminated soil, a feasibility study was conducted to isolate bacteria having Organophosphorus insecticides degrading abilityfrom soil of some selected agro ecosystems in paddy fields which is having a history of repeated pesticide applications. The isolation of Metaldehyde degrading bacteria was carried out using Mineral Salts Medium (MSM) and the isolated strains were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus species,and Bacilluslicheniformisbasedon staining techniques and plating on selective media. Water and wastewater
33 Managing motor vehicles towards a green campus Motor vehicles releases emissions that may degrade the ambient air quality if not manage accordingly. These vehicles may also influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) level mainly carbon dioxide (CO2). Since UniMAP is embarking into green campus it is important to manage the motor vehicles which able to control the release of these pollutants into the atmosphere. Therefore this study will be conducted to evaluate the vehicles population in UniMAP and estimate the mobile emission and CO2 loading and predict the ambient air quality. Occupational safety, health and environmental management
34 Mechanistic Study on Adsorptive Properties of Modified Clay Brick Waste The mechanistic study focuses on the mechanism behind heavy metal adsorption by crushed brick waste obtained from local construction site using a continuous system. Among the parameters required to investigate the mechanism is surface pH and pHpzc and chemical functional groups. Water and wastewater
35 Ni(II) Removal by using Activated Carbon from Rice Husk: Optimization by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) As to compare the combining effects of various parameters in the activated carbon preparation, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used for all listed project above.The study on the efficiency of prepared activated carbon, is conducted for the Ni(II)/Cr(VI) removal. Also, the comparison study also will be conducted by using untreated agricultural wastes and commercial activated carbon. The removal efficiency at the various parameters will be conducted (i.e. contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH). Also, adsorption isotherm and kinetic study also will be conducted. Chemical and process engineering
36 Ni(II) Removal by using Activated Carbon from Rice Straw: Optimization by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). As to compare the combining effects of various parameters in the activated carbon preparation, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used for all listed project above. The study on the efficiency of prepared activated carbon, is conducted for the Ni(II)/Cr(VI) removal. Also, the comparison study also will be conducted by using untreated agricultural wastes and commercial activated carbon. The removal efficiency at the various parameters will be conducted (i.e. contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH). Also, adsorption isotherm and kinetic study also will be conducted. Chemical and process engineering
37 Ni(II) Removal by using Activated Carbon from Sugarcane Bagasse: Optimization by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) As to compare the combining effects of various parameters in the activated carbon preparation, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used for all listed project above.The study on the efficiency of prepared activated carbon, is conducted for the Ni(II)/Cr(VI) removal. Also, the comparison study also will be conducted by using untreated agricultural wastes and commercial activated carbon. The removal efficiency at the various parameters will be conducted (i.e. contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH). Also, adsorption isotherm and kinetic study also will be conducted. Chemical and process engineering
38 Optimization of Anthraquinone Dye Wastewater Treatment using Ozone in the Presence of Persulfate Ions in a Semi-batch Reactor The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of employing persulfate reagent in theadvanced oxidation of ozone to treat anthraquinone dye wastewater in an ozone reactor.Design Expert software will be used for the statisticaldesign of the experiments and data analysis of the relationshipsbetween operating variables, such as ozone and persulfate dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identifythe optimum operating conditions. The experimental results will be matched with predicted models (colour and CODremoval rates). The results will be compared with those from other treatment processes,such as ozone and persulfate only, to evaluate its effectiveness. Lastly, the characteristic of intermediate by-products will be identified by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra. Water and wastewater
39 Oxidative Regeneration of Spent Activated Carbon from Industrial Application Spent activated carbon (SAC) must either be disposed of at landfill or regenerated and reuse in industries. Regeneration of SAC is more preferable option as it can be reducing replacement and disposal cost, which eventually reducing secondary pollution. Chemical method such as oxidative regeneration is more suitable and economically feasible option for small scale industrial application as compared to thermal regeneration. However, explanation on the mechanism of oxidative regeneration for SAC still remain unclear. In this study, SAC will be regenerated by oxidative method using Fenton reagent, hydrogen peroxide and persulphate in batch and recycling column test. Water and wastewater
40 Performance and surface clogging in intermittently loaded slow sand filter. Slow sand filter (SSF) is commonly used in water purification processes. This study be focused on technology improvements to optimize the filtration system process. The filters constructed for this study contained fine sand media which will be operated under intermittently loaded wastewater. Clogging mechanisms in filters for wastewater treatment have not yet been examined. Clogging may occur by chemical and physical mechanisms, chemical clogging can affect the shapes and stability of the pores in sand media. Whilst physical clogging may result from compaction due to loads on the surface of the filter causing a filter cake at the media-water interface Filter head loss is the most common method of determining clogging at operational facilities. Common method is to measure the field saturated hydraulic conductivity. As the filter clogs overtime hydraulic conductivity decreases. Occupational safety, health and environmental management
41 Photodegradation of p-Creasol by ZnO under Continuous UV Irradiation The objective of this study is to investigate the photocatalytic degradation of p-cresol using ZnO under UV irradiation. The amount ofZnO as photocatalyst, p-cresolconcentrationand pH will be studied as variables. The residual concentration andmineralization of p-cresol will be monitored using a UV-visiblespectrophotometer and total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. The intermediate by-products will be identified by FT-IR spectra fragmentation. Water and wastewater
42 Potential organic fertilizer by composting of food waste with rice straw ash Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in waste management to control the increment of waste generation including inUniversiti Malaysia Perlis.This research is focus on the use of rice straw ash that will accelerate the composting process hence composting can be an alternative to treat the problem of organic waste in UniMAP. Physical and chemical properties of the compost will be analyzed to get the good quality of compost. Solid and hazardous waste management
43 Reduction of Waste Through Cleaner Production Options In Food Industries and Restaurant. Malaysians produced 15,000 tonnes of food waste daily. Apart of that, 3,000 tonnes food is still fit for consumption. Research conducted by MARDI shows that 28.4 % of padi produced is wasted, and for fruits and vegetables, 20%-50% is thrown away. Actions have to be taken to minimize food waste generation as low as possible to ensure the sustainability of food production as well as to reduce the environmental impact. This project will focus on the trend of food waste management among food industries and restaurant in Perlis. Furthermore, this project will explore the option and opportunities to be taken and implemented to reduce the waste as well as to optimized the used of raw materials in the industry. This project will be using Cleaner Production approach as its adoptsthe concept of “prevention is better than cure”. Cleaner Production is introduced as a method to minimize the waste generation by improving the efficiency and reducing any wastage. Cleaner production concept adopts “prevention is better than cure” that focuses on before-the event techniques. It is the continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy to process and products to reduce risks to humans and the environment. Solid and hazardous waste management
44 Removal of Odorant Gaseous from Construction and Demolition Waste in Landfill Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an odorant gas in landfills. The project will study H2S removal from landfill residual waste with and without sulfur containing plasterboard. The water influence will be studied. The laboratory experiments will be conducted in 10 L column with a controlled water level. The project will study how different materials removed H2S in reactive layers on top of the waste. The organic waste need to produce H2S in concentrations of up to 40 parts per million (ppm) over a period of 60 days. Then the plasterboard will be added with a high water level and with a low water level. The methane (CH4) concentration will be monitored as well in the initial experiment and after 60 days. The experiments were carried out in three phases at 20 °C: (1) a start-up phase to establish anaerobic conditions, where this phase will be generating a gas mixture typical for landfills; (2) an enhanced sulfide production phase with crushed plaster board gypsum (size 0.2–2 cm) compared with reactors without plaster board; and (3) a treatment removal phase in which a selection of top cover filter materials were investigated for binding and reduction efficiency of produced H2S gas. Solid and hazardous waste management
45 Reutilization of dyes from Batik industry effluent as dye sensitizers in dye sensitize solar cell (DSSC). Dyes from the textile effluent have become one of the major problems in the treatment of the wastewater.This study focus on the reutilization of dyes in the textile effluent namely the batik industry as sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is believed that due to the nature of the textile effluent that is loaded with dyes and some of these metal complexes, it is most likely to act as the dye sensitizers in the fabrication of the DSSCs. Characterization of the raw wastewater will be conducted prior to fabrication of the DSSCs to determine the properties and characteristics of the raw wastewater. Synthesis and preparation of the dye sensitizer will then commence followed by fabrication of the DSSCs using the standard Gratzel technique. For comparison purposes, standard DSSCs using commercial dyes will also be prepared by using the same technique. Finally, the performance and the photochemical properties of the DSSC are evaluated by determining the thermal stability and electrical output of the fabricated DSSCs. water and wastewater
46 Risk Factor Contributing to Commuting Accident in Perlis Recently, commuting accident cases is increasing in Malaysia. According to data from Social Security Organization (SOCSO), there were three work-related deaths every day in 2011. Two out of the three deaths were due to commuting accidents indicating a serious situation in the country. In general, this study will evaluate the risk factors that contribute to the Road Crash accident in Perlis including human, vehicle, road structure, route and environmental factors. Data collection is carried out from the relevant agencies including PDRM, SOCSO, JKJR, Hospitals and etc. Haddon Matrix is used to analyzed the risk factors that contribute to Road Accident in Perlis. Occupational safety, health and environmental management
47 Shoreline Protection Issues in Integrated Coastal Zone Management Coastal zone is under increasing stress due to development of industries, tourism and resultant from human population growth and migration as well as deteriorating water quality. This region is very high biological productivity and thus become an important component of the global life system, Coastal ecosystem are wealth of species and genetic diversity, store and cycle nutrients, filter pollutants and help to protect shorelines from erosion and storms. One of the issues in coastal zone management is shoreline protection which are includes identification of vulnerable areas, coastal protection works as well as impact of engineering structures. Coastal zone management
48 Simultaneous azo dye degradation and bioelectricity generation by using Microbial Fuel Cell Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging innovative technology forsimultaneous wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation, where microbes converts the chemical energy contained in organic matter to electrical energy. The objectives of this study are: 1. To investigate the different operating parameters on MFC system performance. i) The effect of organic loading ratesand dye concentration on bioelectricity generation ii) The effect of different azo dyes on bioelectricity generation and dye degradation. 2. To study the mechanism of azo dyes degradation in the MFC system. 3. To identity the microorganisms present in the MFC system by conducting microbial culturing and profiling. Water and wastewater
49 Simultaneous Removal Of Color, Nutrients And Organic Compounds From Wastewater Containing Azo Dye Using Aerobic Anaerobic BaffledConstructed Wetland Reactor The Aerobic- anaerobic Baffled Constructed Wetland Reactor is a newlydesigned reactor which provides sequential aerobic and anaerobictreatment zones. The objective of this study is to determine theperformance of the Aerobic- anaerobic Baffled Constructed WetlandReactor (ABCW) based on the treatment of azo dye. Various operatingparameters were considered during the operation of ABCW reactor such asemergent plants, pollutant loading rate and wetland media. Water and wastewater
50 Stabilization of heavy metals in a contaminated paddy soil amended with zeolite clinoptilolite – an incubation study A laboratory incubation study is planned to delineate the benefits of natural zeolite and HTOC, a low-cost soil amendment on heavy metals stabilization in a contaminated paddy soil. Soil sample was collected from the 0-30 cm depth of a paddy soil in Ranau, Sabah which is contaminated with ultrabasic soil through pedogenesis weathering of serpentinite rocks. 5 dosages of zeolite treatments will be tested (including a control treatment) in duplicates. The soil samples will be incubated for 30 days at 25±1°C in dark place. The identification of heavy metals mobility in soil samples will then be evaluated by total heavy metal content method using 15 mL HNO3 + 5 mL perchloric acid and analysed by AAS after dilution. The incubation study will determine the effective dosage for immobilization of heavy metals from polluted paddy soil. Soil pH, soil moisture, organic matter and soil particle size will be determined as basic characterizations prior to and along the undergoing treatment. Available contents of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in soil samples will be determined by HACH spectrophotometer. Simple correlation coefficient will be run after lab analysis to determine the heavy metals concentrations in soil with different treatments. Soil remediation
51 Status kepatuhan petani dalam mengamalkan konsep amalan pertanian baik dalam pengurusan penggunaan pestisid di Perlis dan kesannya terhadap risiko kesihatan petani dan masyarakat The dye stuff lost in the textile industry poses a major problem to wastewater sources. These poisonous materials absorb the oxygen of the water and might threaten human life as well as the environment. Common ways of dye wastewater treatment include adsorption, sedimentation, chemical analysis, chemicoagulation, biological methods, and advanced oxidation procedures. However, more advanced techniques such as sonolysis for dye treatment is not widely explored. Sonolysis is a process where chemicalbondsis break or formation of radicalsusingultrasound.Hence sonolysis is could be one the possible way to treat dye wastewater effectively Water and wastewater
52 Study of phytoremediation in reducing COD and color of textile wastewater. Textile wastewater produce high amount of liquid wastes. It contains high COD and unfixed dyes concentration. Therefore, this study is aim to use plant in reducing COD and color of the effluent. The parameters that will be studied are effect of: pH of the solution, concentration of the solution and type of plant. Two types of floating plants will be used in this study. Water and wastewater
53 Study on Gaseous Emmision Effects from a Landfill. At present approximately 95% of waste is collected and taken to landfill. The remaining waste is sent for treatment at incinerators or isrecycled and reprocessed. Some waste is dumped illegally. Waste will undergo biodegradation processes that produce landfill gas. Landfill gas is a mixture of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and small quantities of other odorous gas including ammonia (CH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The major problem associated with landfill sites in Malaysia are odour from waste decomposition, flies, vermin and leachate into nearby water body from landfill. Recognizing the importance of landfill gas, the study will be conducted to investigate the effect of landfill gas on human being. The basic of the research is the monitoring of landfill gas and an assessment of the perception of residents concerning the impact of the landfill upon them. The research will took place in Padang Siding Landfill and attitude assessment will be amongst the employees and residents lived ten km radius surrounding the site. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA and cluster analysis will be used to analyze all data. Solid and hazardous waste management
54 Sulfur vulcanization of PP/NBRr/BSP composites. PP/NBRr/BSP composites were prepared at different loadings. The effects of NBRr sulfur vulcanization treatment on properties of PP/NBRr/BSP composites were investigated for mechanical properties, water absorption, swelling behavior, FTIR, DSC, TGA and SEM. Material
55 Synthesis and fabrication of new dye sensitizer from rubber processing industries effluent. Dyes from the rubber processing industries effluent have become one of the major problems in the treatment of the wastewater.This study focus on the reutilization of dyes in the rubber processing industries effluent as sensitizers in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is believed that due to the nature of the rubber processing industries effluent that is loaded with dyes and some of these metal complexes, it is most likely to act as the dye sensitizers in the fabrication of the DSSCs. Characterization of the raw wastewater will be conducted prior to fabrication of the DSSCs to determine the properties and characteristics of the raw wastewater. Synthesis and preparation of the dye sensitizer will then commence followed by fabrication of the DSSCs using the standard Gratzel technique. For comparison purposes, standard DSSCs using commercial dyes will also be prepared by using the same technique. Finally, the performance and the photochemical properties of the DSSC are evaluated by determining the thermal stability and electrical output of the fabricated DSSCs. Water and wastewater
56 The assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in petrol refueling station The operation of the petrol refuelling station releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may be harmful to humans and the environment. The current situation is that we have limited information regarding the level of VOCs at the workplace and more importantly the level of exposure to workers (in the facility) and customers. Therefore, this study will evaluate the level of VOCs and the humans health risks associated with the exposure level. Occupational safety, health and environmental management
57 The assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in public hospitals Buildings should be safe and having good indoor environmental quality because humans spend most of their time in the working environment. For buildings such as hospitals the issue pertaining to health and comfort should never been compromised. The indoor environmental quality should be good not only for the wellbeing of the patients but also to the medical and supporting staffs. Therefore, to ensure the comfort of occupants, an indoor air quality particularly focusing on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) should be evaluated to assess the level of pollutants and the potential health risk that may post to them. Occupational safety, health and environmental management
58 The effect of vermicompost on the growth rate of Kenaf Vermicompost produced by COE Biomass Utilisation of Unimap will be tested and investigating the effect on growth rate of Kenaf. Kenaf is fast growing plant and very important for fibre industry. The study will be beneficial to reduce growth time from 6 months to 4 months. Renewable energy
59 Thermal performance of prefabricated ground heat exchanger slabs of several pipe configurations Ground heat exchanger pipe concealed in prefabricated slabs is well protected and encourages higher heat exchange in ground source heat pump systems. This ensures the durability of the pipe and helps to minimized heat build-up in the ground domain. One of the factors that determine the thermal performance of ground heat exchanger is the pipe layout which can be in any configurations. In this work, several prefabricated ground heat exchanger slabs would be constructed in different pipe configurations. The thermal performance of the slabs would be investigated for operation in a laboratory-scale analysis domain. The heat exchange rate would be analysed per pipe length for a fair comparison. The analysis includes discontinuous operation that would reflect on thermal saturation effect in the ground domain. Renewable energy
60 Thermal properties of grout materials for prefabricated ground heat exchanger slabs Prefabricated ground heat exchanger slabs would shorten the on-site installation time for the earth connection in ground source heat pump systems. Thermal resistivity and thermal saturation effects of the earth connection could be minimized by using high thermal conductivity grout materials. The ground heat exchanger pipes concealed in the grout would provide protection against physical degradation. In this work, several grout materials would be tested for thermal properties, as well as physical properties. Filling materials using recycled materials such as aluminium and steel shavings would be used in formulating grout with superior thermal conductivity. The optimum formula would be determined for a grout material that is suitable to be used as prefabricated ground heat exchanger slabs. Renewable energy
61 Treatment of Anthraquinone Dye Using Hybrid Process of Thermolysis and Coagulation/Flocculation In the present study, hybrid process of thermolysis and coagulation/flocculation is proposed to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater. In thermolysis, heat is applied to decompose anthraquinone dye complex organic substance into smaller organic molecules with lower molecular weights. Inorganic catalyst such as zinc oxide, copper (II) oxide, copper (II) sulfate and etc. are added to speed up the thermal degradation process. The coagulantion/flocculation process is immediately applied after the thermolysis process. The novelty of hybrid process of thermolysis and coagulation/flocculation is that of combining the two-step processes into a single process in a same reactor. The scope of the research included the effect of temperature, dosage of catalyst, dosage of coagulant, effect of time, kinetics study, zeta potential and etc. At the end of research study, thermal degradation pathways of the anthraquinone dye molecules during thermolysis and coagulation/flocculation hybrid process will be studied using UV-Vis spectra analysis and Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GCMS) analysis. Water and wastewater
62 Treatment of diesel contaminated wastewater using slow sand filter This study examined performance of slow sand filter on treating diesel contaminated wastewater. Since water contaminated with hydrocarbons is common in the oil producing and industrialized countries such as Malaysia. Hydrocarbons have shown to be both acutely toxic toward a number of aquatic organisms. In an effort to mitigate the environmental impact of diesel contaminated wastewater, slow sand filter was constructed. Synthetic diesel wastewater will be applied to two constructed perspex column with a sand layer with an average height of 55cm. Synthetic contaminated water with diesel was prepared by mixing diesel with water in two sand filters at different concentrations: 0.1% and 0.25% (Vdiesel/Vwater). This study will discuss the performance and design criteria of slow sand filter for the treatment of diesel contaminated wastewater. It also proposes sand filtration as an alternative treatment mechanism for oil refineries in Malaysia and suggests design guidelines. Water and wastewater
63 Treatment of Molasses Wastewater Using Combined Process of Anaerobic and Sequencing Batch Reactor In the present study, combined process of anaerobic and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is proposed to treat the molasses wastewater. Molasses wastewater is a by-product from sugar manufacturing and it is used as raw material in several industrial applications such as bioethanol production, baker's yeast fermentation and etc. Firstly, the molasses wastewater will undergo the treatment of anaerobic degradation process. The treated effluent of molasses wastewater from anaerobic treatment will be transferred and treated in the sequencing batch reactor. Various parameters such as volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and etc will be analyzed throughout the proposed study. Water and wastewater
64 Use of alum and ferric sulfate for treating landfill leachate via coagulation: a comparative study Coagulation and flocculation are widely use in water and wastewater treatment. Coagulation process is effective for removing high concentration organic pollutants, heavy metal and some anions. Coagulation is the process where compounds such as metal salts are added to effluent in order to destabilize colloid material. As the result, aggregation of small particle into larger, more easily removed flock takes place. The effectiveness of the process is influenced by the coagulating agent, the coagulant dosage, the pH and ionic strength as well as the concentration and the nature of the organic compounds. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of coagulation using alum and ferric sulfate in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solid (SS), turbidity and colour from landfill leachate. The optimum pH and the optimum coagulant dosage are determined to ensure that the best efficient pollutant removal by the coagulation process in treating landfill leachate using both coagulants Water and wastewater
65 Variation of Ground Level Ozone Exceedances in the Westcoast of Peninsular Malaysia 5 years of hourly ozone concentration and it precursors (NOx, NO2, NMHC, CO) in 5 selected urban areas that are located in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia will be used in this analysis. The analysis that will be conducted include; i) the descriptive statistics that will be presented via box plot and time series; ii) spatial analysis including diurnal windrose diagram and trajectory analysis; iii) the diurnal correlation between the ozone concentration and its precursor; iv) cluster analysis via dendogram plot will be used to confirm the association of diurnal ozone concentration and its precursor. Air pollution
66 Water footprint assessment of Perlis river basin: case study of Perlis irrigation The water foot print (WF) indicator addresses the issue of the appropriation of water resources by humanity. In addition to revealing the hidden link between products or consumption patterns of populations and their needs in terms of water resources,the water foot print (WF) indicator generates new debates and solutions on water management at basin scale. The study will focus on assessing the water footprint mainly from the agriculture practices and crops (WFcrop) along Perlis river basin. The blue (WFblue) and green WF (WFgreen)accounting and sustainability assessment will be mainly based on the established standard methods proposedin the Water Footprint Assessment Manual (Hoekstra et al.,2011). In order to observe the most serious water scarce months, the annual green and blue WF are compared with blue water availability (WAblue)at a monthly level. Objectives: 1) to assess water footprint of irrigation (WF) at Perlis river basin level viabottom-up approach. 2) to assess the sustainability of Perlis river basin in term of environment Water resources and sustainability